The population, its age structure, trends in these indicators affects the quantitative indicators of the entire education system. Moreover, it is impossible to consider the education system in isolation from the economic indicators of the country’s development. The development of the country’s economy as a socio-economic system in research is characterized by a large number of indicators describing various aspects of its functioning, but in this monograph we will use one of them, which in some sense is integral. This indicator is the size of gross domestic product (GDP). Therefore, we will analyze the dynamics of both demographic indicators and GDP of Ukraine.