Circle of readers and scope of application

The research results presented in this monograph can be useful for graduate students and
teachers whose research interests are at the intersection of pedagogy, psychology and economics.

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The processes of progressive globalization and the emergence of the information society characterize the socio-economic transformations of the late XX – early XXI century. They necessitate a change in the paradigm of the higher education system, search for new approaches, technologies, methods of organizing the educational process, criteria for selection of scientific and pedagogical staff forms the basis of innovative autonomous activities of higher education institutions (HEIs), which provides a flexible funding system.

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1.1 Characteristics of the demographic situation in Ukraine

The population, its age structure, trends in these indicators affects the quantitative indicators of the entire education system. Moreover, it is impossible to consider the education system in isolation from the economic indicators of the country’s development. The development of the country’s economy as a socio-economic system in research is characterized by a large number of indicators describing various aspects of its functioning, but in this monograph we will use one of them, which in some sense is integral. This indicator is the size of gross domestic product (GDP). Therefore, we will analyze the dynamics of both demographic indicators and GDP of Ukraine.

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1.2 Forecasting indicators of the education system of Ukraine

Forecasting is a powerful management tool in any socio-economic system. An important component of such systems is the education system, which makes forecasting indicators of its development an important area of management at the micro-, meso- and macro- levels.

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2.1 Quantitative analysis of vacancies by specialties and educational programs in the regional labor market

The section provides a quantitative analysis of the labor market in terms of groups of specialties and educational programs. A quantitative assessment of the compliance of the popularity of entrants in specialties and educational programs to the demands of the labor market.

A quantitative analysis of employers’ requirements for candidates for a job, the availability of higher education and work experience. The demand of employers for soft Skills job seekers and professional competencies in terms of specialty groups is estimated by employers. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the structure of the labor market has been studied.

Clustering of specialties and educational programs according to the criterion of similarity of demand for personal and professional competencies.

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2.2 Evaluation of the popularity of groups of specialties and educational programs

Component 2 – university entrants described as Ai{a, b, c, d, e, f} and its graduates with a description in the form of Si{a, b, c, d, e, f} with the following parameters: a – education; b – work experience; c – specialty (educational program); d – professional competencies; e – personal competencies, including soft skills; f – wishes of the applicant.

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2.3 Clustering of groups of specialties and educational programs according to the criterion of similarity of required competencies

Component 4, these are employed professionals, including the self-employed, but who are trying on vacancies in the labor market. They are described as Pi{a, b, c, d, e, f}.

It is important for employed professionals to understand the professional and personal competencies required in job advertisements. These specialists are already employed, so it is important for them not just to find a job, but to improve their material support and find more opportunities for self-expression of the already acquired personal and professional competencies. In this context, it is important to cluster specialties, educational programs on the basis of common competencies. No less important is the interpretation of the content of competencies that describe a vacancy in the ads.

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3.1 Defining the emotional and intellectual portrait of students

The section presents an analysis of cognitive and emotional characteristics of students and their impact on learning outcomes at the university. The advantages and disadvantages of the functioning of the system of external independent evaluation of learning outcomes (EIE) in Ukraine are formulated.

The possibilities of using the psychological characteristics of entrants, the scores of their external evaluation certificates to assess future learning outcomes and to assess career prospects after graduation have been explored.

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3.2 Definition of cognitive-intellectual and creative portrait of a student

Emotional intelligence, of course, plays an important role in the formation of personality, both at the stage of learning and further professional activity. However, underestimating the role of cognitive abilities will be a significant error. The natural abilities possessed by a person should be a reference point at the stage of early career guidance. Some areas of professional activity require special abilities, without which it is impossible to achieve career success.

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3.3 The problem of selection for training in the HEI and the implementation of the state order

The problem of selection of entrants to study at the University (HEI) is still relevant and should be based on the results of marketing research as the demand for certain specialties and labor market supply for certain positions and requirements for them.

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4.1 General questions

A quantitative analysis of the system of financing higher education in Ukraine, including the current system of distribution of budget funds between institutions of higher education. The necessity of adaptation of the formula of distribution of means between HEI of Ukraine to a real economic situation is proved.

An analysis of the possibility of raising funds from external stakeholders to finance educational and research work at universities.

The shortcomings of the current system of university financing and ways to eliminate them are substantiated.

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4.2 Problems of formation and use of the special fund of the Budget by institutions of higher education of Ukraine

To ensure the development of higher education it is necessary to use not only public funding, but also funds from other sources – individuals who agree to pay the cost of training to ensure future career growth in prestigious or interesting for them specialties, business entities that seek to obtain highly qualified specialists, local governments, aimed at ensuring effective governance at the local level by attracting qualified management professionals. In fact, a special budget fund is formed from the listed sources. The most successful in the formation of a special fund as shown in the monograph [18] are economic and classical universities. This thesis is partially confirmed in the monograph [39].

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4.3 Financing of HEI from the general fund of the Budget of Ukraine

The approach to financing HEIs from the general fund of the Budget, introduced in 2020, is based on a mathematical model, the main parameters of which are given in the Cabinet of Ministers of December 24, 2019 No. 1146 «On the distribution of state budget expenditures between higher education scientific and international activities» (hereinafter – the Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine 46 1146) [42].

4.3.1 Justification of the size of indices in the formula of distribution of budgetary funds

First, we will consistently consider the validity of the size of the indices, which actually form the most important component of the indicator of activity of the HEI and is called the «estimated contingent».

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4.3.2 Justification of the list and size of indicators from the formula for the distribution of budget funds

Let’s consider in more detail each of the indicators that form the performance indicator of a particular HEI. First of all, it should be emphasized that the purpose of the Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine No. 1146 is not to determine the cost of training specialists with higher education, but only the distribution of the already determined amount between HEIs. Thus, it is a question of a relative estimation of activity of certain HEI concerning others. This integrated indicator (Ai) should be based on indicators that allow to assess the advantages of a particular HEI over others and to indicate to management the directions for improving the functioning of HEIs.

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Problems of development of the education system of Ukraine are largely due to socio-economic and demographic circumstances, which in turn depend on the socio-political situation in the country. The wave-like changes in the components of the demographic situation in Ukraine and their connection with the waves of chain changes in GDP are clearly traced.

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