The processes of progressive globalization and the emergence of the information society characterize the socio-economic transformations of the late XX – early XXI century. They necessitate a change in the paradigm of the higher education system, search for new approaches, technologies, methods of organizing the educational process, criteria for selection of scientific and pedagogical staff forms the basis of innovative autonomous activities of higher education institutions (HEIs), which provides a flexible funding system.
Solving the problem of financing national higher education is becoming increasingly important. The costs of science and education with the right organization will always be highly profitable. In the last century, Nobel Prize – winning economist Simon Kuznets wrote: «The technological development of the past decades rooted in the emergence of modern science is unprecedented, which brings in the question of the encompassing costs on education as a capital investment into national accounting framework» .
The education system of Ukraine is currently developing in an environment where there is
a significant reduction in the birth rate, which has determined the acceleration of the annual population decline in all age groups. The COVID-19 pandemic, which continues in 2021, has contributed to population decline. In 2020, the number of deaths in Ukraine increased compared to 2019 by 35.7 thousand people .
The declining trend in the birth rate, which has been observed since 2014, will have an impact not only on the contingent of freelance students, but also on other quantitative indicators of higher education in Ukraine. Among these indicators are: the number of HEI, the number of teaching staff, the number of places in hostels, the size of the scholarship fund and the salary fund of HEI staff, etc. That is, there is a problem of forecasting the dynamics of quantitative indicators of the education system of Ukraine.
When forming the contingent of applicants for higher education, the problem of assessing
the cognitive abilities and potential of young people for self-determination, self-realization and
creative activity in a particular field remains relevant.
The functioning of the system of external independent evaluation (EIE) of learning outcomes in Ukraine, along with unconditional positive results, created the problem of insufficient systematization of students’ knowledge.
External independent evaluation (EIE) is a standardized test that is mandatory for all graduates of Ukrainian schools who wish to enter HEI in Ukraine, and EIE can be seen as Ukrainian analog of American SAT.
External independent evaluation is conducted in the main subjects of the school course:
Ukrainian language and literature, history of Ukraine, mathematics, biology, chemistry, physics,
geography, foreign languages.
The test in Ukrainian language and literature is mandatory for all entrants in Ukraine, passing other external evaluation tests is offered to the entrant’s choice depending on the specialty chosen by the entrant to study at a HEI.
The problem of quantitative analysis of employers’ requirements for job candidates in terms of higher education and work experience, the availability of Soft Skills job seekers and professional competencies in terms of specialty groups needs to be addressed.
This monograph is devoted to the correct formulation and solution of these problems. In the author’s opinion, it can be useful for a wide range of research and teaching staff, managers in higher education.