3.3 The problem of selection for training in the HEI and the implementation of the state order

It is necessary not to ignore the economy of impressions, no matter how we treat it, but to use its features to achieve the desired result. It is necessary to make the specialties necessary for Ukraine prestigious so that it would be objectively economically and morally profitable for able students and their parents to choose them.

This task is not easy, but can be solved within 5–7 years, provided the development and implementation of a system of measures at the state level. Such a system of measures should take into account economic, organizational and media components.

The author proposes to divide the state order into two components – strategic and socio-economic. The size of the state order and its financing for specialties that constitute the strategic needs of the state have significant features due to the specifics of training and work in these specialties.

It cannot be allowed, that the HEIs stop training specialists in unpopular specialties from the point of view of the public and business entities, as this will lead to undesirable consequences in the future. Therefore, it is necessary to create objective conditions for the formation of motives for choosing such specialties. The list of such specialties should be very narrow and determined at the level of the CMU.

It is also very important not to lose specialists in the field of basic sciences, without which it is impossible to even imagine significant achievements in either science or innovation.

For example, specialists in theoretical physics, chemistry, biology or mathematics can only be minimally on the list of needs of the population and economic entities, while the needs of the state, which pursues a course of innovative development, must fully cover these factors.

You do not need many such specialists. Quite a few people in each specialty. However, in order to prepare them, it is necessary to select capable applicants. It is impossible to do this administratively and by persuasion alone. Objective conditions should be created that would motivate the most talented young people in high school to obtain higher education in the relevant specialties. In this regard, it is necessary to activate more compelling motives for attracting the best applicants, including [32]:

  • guaranteed first job;
  • salary supplement in the amount of 100–200 % during the first 3–5 years of work;
  • provision of official housing with the possibility of redemption for 10–15 years;– significantly increased scholarship (by 100–200 %); – free dormitory for the period of study.

Such motives can indeed form, mainly from the elements of the first cluster, a new supercluster of entrants who will take part in a real competition for specialties that meet the strategic needs of the state, as they will become prestigious and guarantee successful graduates a quality social package.

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