1.1 Characteristics of the demographic situation in Ukraine

The second component of the natural population movement is the number of deaths. According to official data [9], we will build a graph of changes in the number of deaths by year (Fig. 1.2). 

In the period from 1990 to 1995, there was a tendency to increase the number of deaths from 629.6 thousand people to 792.6 thousand people, which is an increase of 26 %. In other words, 26 % more people died in 1995 than in 1990.

Then, in the period from 1995 to 1998, the number of deaths decreased annually from 792.6 thousand people to 719.9 thousand people, which is a percentage reduction of 10 %.

In the following period from 1998 to 2005, there was another increase in deaths from 719.9 thousand people to 782.0 thousand people, which is 9 %.

Since 2005, there has been a positive trend of declining mortality, which continues until 2017. During this period, the annual mortality decreased from 782.0 thousand people to 574.1 thousand people, which is a decrease of 37 %.

Since 2017, death rates have been deteriorating again. There is an increase in annual mortality from 574.1 thousand people in 2017 to 616.8 thousand people in 2020. Thus, for three years the growth is 8 %.

One of the indicators that describes demographic processes and is considered the most accurate measure of the birth rate is the total fertility rate (TFR). TFR is the average number of children born to a woman in a hypothetical generation during her lifetime. According to [10], in Ukraine this indicator has been rapidly declining since 1990 (1.56) and reached its minimum in 2001 (1.08); over the next ten years, TFR gradually increased and in 2012 was recorded at 1.53. After that, the decline in this indicator began again. In 2018, it amounted to 1.30, and in 2019, the TFR was equal to 1.228.

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