1.1 Characteristics of the demographic situation in Ukraine

The population, its age structure, trends in these indicators affects the quantitative indicators of the entire education system. Moreover, it is impossible to consider the education system in isolation from the economic indicators of the country’s development. The development of the country’s economy as a socio-economic system in research is characterized by a large number of indicators describing various aspects of its functioning, but in this monograph we will use one of them, which in some sense is integral. This indicator is the size of gross domestic product (GDP). Therefore, we will analyze the dynamics of both demographic indicators and GDP of Ukraine.

It is well known that population changes occur under the influence of two processes: natural and mechanical population movements.

The main indicator of natural movement is the difference between births and deaths, which
can be positive (increase) or negative (depopulation). Many Central European countries, including Ukraine, are characterized by depopulation. Ukraine has a strategy of demographic development, within which the material support of families with children has been significantly increased. These measures contributed to some increase in the birth rate, but the general trend remained unchanged. Depopulation is taking place. Factors influencing the indicators of natural movement are studied, in particular, in the work [3].

The hypothesis of some relationship between GDP and birth rate seems natural. Studies have shown that such a relationship between indicators in kind is not statistically significant. However, when using the chain relative indicators born in Ukraine and the corresponding chain relative indicators of GDP in percent, the correlation coefficients indicate the presence of statistical dependence.

Paired Pearson correlation coefficients are as follows ryx = 0.6023, ryxl1 = 0.6432, ryxl2 = 0.4404, ryxl3 = 0.3376, where y – the relative chain of births; x – relative chain indicator of GDP; xl1 – lag variable of the relative chain indicator of GDP with a lag of 1 year; xl2 – lag variable of the relative chain indicator of GDP with a lag of 2 years; xl3 – lag variable of the relative chain indicator of GDP with a lag of 3 years.

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